BR Stow


Nuffnang Header

Adsense Leaderboard

Smowtion Leaderboard 1

BR Stow 2



Supposed to be a Super Navigation Bar

Jan 3, 2011

PSA 120 - FRAMEWORK OF PHILIPPINE STANDARDS ON AUDITING




Introduction 

1. The Auditing Standards and Practices Council has been authorized to issue Philippine Standards on Auditing (PSAs).  The purpose of this document is to describe the framework within which PSAs are issued in relation to the services which may be performed by auditors. 

2. For ease of reference, except where indicated, the term “auditor” is used throughout the PSAs when describing both auditing and related services which may be performed.  Such reference is not intended to imply that a person performing related services need be the auditor of the entity's financial statements.

Framework of Philippine Standards on Auditing 

Introduction 

1. The Auditing Standards and Practices Council has been authorized to issue Philippine Standards on Auditing (PSAs).  The purpose of this document is to describe the framework within which PSAs are issued in relation to the services which may be performed by auditors. 





2. For ease of reference, except where indicated, the term “auditor” is used throughout the PSAs when describing both auditing and related services which may be performed.  Such reference is not intended to imply that a person performing related services need be the auditor of the entity's financial statements.

Financial Reporting Framework 

3. Financial statements are ordinarily prepared and presented annually and are directed toward the common information needs of a wide range of users.  Many of those users rely on the financial statements as their major source of information because they do not have the power to obtain additional information to meet their ecific information needs.  Thus, financial statements need to be prepared in accordance with one, or a combination of:
(a) accounting standards generally accepted in the Philippines; 
(b) International Accounting Standards; and 
(c) another authoritative and comprehensive financial reporting framework which has been designed for use in financial reporting and is identified in the financial statements. 

Framework for Auditing and Related Services 

4.  This Framework distinguishes audits from related services. Related services comprise reviews, agreed-upon procedures and compilations.  As illustrated in the diagram below, audits and reviews are designed to enable the auditor to provide high and moderate levels of assurance respectively, such terms being used to indicate their comparative ranking.  Engagements to undertake agreed-upon procedures and compilations are not intended to enable the auditor to express assurance.   

3. Financial statements are ordinarily prepared and presented annually and are directed toward the common information needs of a wide range of users.  Many of those users rely on the financial statements as their major source of information because they do not have the power to obtain additional information to meet their ecific information needs.  Thus, financial statements need to be prepared in accordance with one, or a combination of:
(a) accounting standards generally accepted in the Philippines; 
(b) International Accounting Standards; and 
(c) another authoritative and comprehensive financial reporting framework which has been designed for use in financial reporting and is identified in the financial statements. 

Framework for Auditing and Related Services 

4.  This Framework distinguishes audits from related services. Related services comprise reviews, agreed-upon procedures and compilations.  As illustrated in the diagram below, audits and reviews are designed to enable the auditor to provide high and moderate levels of assurance respectively, such terms being used to indicate their comparative ranking.  Engagements to undertake agreed-upon procedures and compilations are not intended to enable the auditor to express assurance.  


4.  This Framework distinguishes audits from related services. Related services comprise reviews, agreed-upon procedures and compilations.  As illustrated in the diagram below, audits and reviews are designed to enable the auditor to provide high and moderate levels of assurance respectively, such terms being used to indicate their comparative ranking.  Engagements to undertake agreed-upon procedures and compilations are not intended to enable the auditor to express assurance.  

5. The Framework does not apply to other services provided by auditors such as taxation, consultancy, and financial and accounting advice. 

Levels of Assurance

15. Assurance in the context of this Framework refers to the auditor's satisfaction as to the reliability of an assertion being made by one party for use by another party.  To provide such assurance, the auditor assesses the evidence collected as a result of procedures conducted and expresses a conclusion.  The degree of satisfaction achieved and, therefore, the level of assurance which may be provided is determined by the procedures performed and their results. 

16. In an audit engagement, the auditor provides a high, but not absolute, level of assurance that the information subject to audit is free of material misstatement.  This is expressed positively in the audit report as reasonable assurance. 

17. In a review engagement, the auditor provides a moderate level of assurance that the information subject to review is free of material misstatement.  This is expressed in the form of negative assurance. 

18. For agreed-upon procedures, as the auditor simply provides a report of the factual findings, no assurance is expressed.  Instead, users of the report assess for themselves the procedures and findings reported by the auditor and draw their own conclusions from the auditor's work. 

19. In a compilation engagement, although the users of the compiled information derive some benefit from the accountant's(1) involvement, no assurance is expressed in the report. 

20. The objective of an audit of financial statements is to enable the auditor to express an opinion whether the financial statements are prepared, in all material respects, in accordance with an identified financial reporting framework.  The phrase used to express the auditor's opinion is “present fairly, in all material respects.”  A similar objective applies to the audit of financial or other information prepared in accordance with appropriate criteria. 

21. In forming the audit opinion, the auditor obtains sufficient appropriate audit evidence to be able to draw conclusions on which to base that opinion. 

22. The auditor's opinion enhances the credibility of financial statements by providing a high, but not absolute, level of assurance.  Absolute assurance in auditing is not attainable as a result of such factors as the need for judgment, the use of testing, the inherent limitations of any accounting and internal control systems and the fact that most of the evidence available to the auditor is persuasive, rather than conclusive, in nature.

(1) To distinguish compilation engagements from audits and other related services the term "accountant" (rather than "auditor") has been used to refer to a professional accountant in public practice.

Related Services
Reviews

14. The objective of a review of financial statements is to enable an auditor(2) to state whether, on the basis of procedures which do not provide all the evidence that would be required in an audit, anything has come to the auditor's attention that causes the auditor to believe that the financial statements are not prepared, in all material respects, in accordance with an identified financial reporting framework.  A similar objective applies to the review of financial or other information prepared in accordance with appropriate criteria. 

15. A review comprises inquiry and analytical procedures which are designed to review the reliability of an assertion that is the responsibility of one party for use by another party.  While a review involves the application of audit skills and techniques and the gathering of evidence, it does not ordinarily involve an assessment of accounting and internal control systems, tests of records and of responses to inquiries by obtaining corroborating evidence through inspection, observation, confirmation and computation, which are procedures ordinarily performed during an audit. 

16. Although the auditor attempts to become aware of all significant matters, the procedures of a review make the achievement of this objective less likely than in an audit engagement, thus the level of assurance provided in a review report is correspondingly less than that given in an audit report. Agreed-upon Procedures 

17. In an engagement to perform agreed-upon procedures, an auditor(3) is engaged to carry out those procedures of an audit nature to which the auditor and the entity and any appropriate third parties have agreed and to report on factual findings.  The recipients of the report must form their own conclusions from the report by the auditor.  The report is restricted to those parties that have agreed to the procedures to be performed since others, unaware of the reasons for the procedures, may misinterpret the results. 

(2) As explained in paragraph 2 the term auditor is used when describing both auditing and related services. Such reference is not intended to imply that a person performing related services need to be the auditor of the entity’s financial statements. 
(3 )  See footnote 2. 

Compilations 

18. In a compilation engagement, the accountant(4) is engaged to use accounting expertise as opposed to auditing expertise to collect, classify and summarize financial information.  This ordinarily entails reducing detailed data to a manageable and understandable form without a requirement to test the assertions underlying that information.  The procedures employed are not designed and do not enable the accountant to express any assurance on the financial information.  However, users of the compiled financial information derive some benefit as a result of the accountant's involvement because the service has been performed with due professional skill and care. itor Association with Financial Information 

19. An auditor(5) is associated with financial information when the auditor attaches a report to that information or consents to the use of the auditor's name in a professional connection.  If the auditor is not associated in this manner, third parties can assume no responsibility of the auditor.  If the auditor learns that an entity is inappropriately using the auditor's name in association with financial information, the auditor would require management to cease doing so and consider what further steps, if any, need to be taken, such as informing any known third party users of the information of the inappropriate use of the auditor's name in connection with the information.  The auditor may also believe it necessary to take other action, for example, to seek legal advice. 

(4) See footnote 1. 
(5) This includes an accountant engaged to perform compilation engagements.






   

0 comments:

Post a Comment

Google +1

Sociable

Infolinks In Text Ads

Kontera

Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...
Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...

Nuffnang

 

Smowtion Leaderboard 2